Preposition; ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘at’ and other preposition

Preposition adalah kata yang diletakkan sebelum kata benda, kata ganti, noun phrase dan gerund. Ada banyak macam preposisi yang biasa digunakan bahasa Inggris dan dikelompokkan berdasarkan tipenya. Dalam bab ini akan dijelaskan secara rinci, penggunaan preposition berdasakan keterikatannya dengan kata lain:

Preposition of time :


at:

  1. Time of day (at 00, at 6.00 p.m.)
    e.g :
    – There’s a meeting at 30 this afternoon.
    – The meeting at five o’clock has been cancelled.

  2. Part of the day (at noon, at night, at midnight, at lunchtime).
    e.g.:
    – I saw him at noon.
    – I don’t like going out at night.
    – Are free at lunchtime?

  3. Dalam expression sebagai berikut:
  • At week-end / at week-ends   •  At the moment / at the present  •  At the same time
  • At Christmas / at Easter (masa liburan umum)       •  At the age of …

e.g.:
– Will you be here at the week-end?
– Benn is busy at the moment / at present.
– We give each other present at Christmas.
– Anna and I arrived at the same time.
– Tom left school at the age od 16 / at 16.

In:
  1. Part of the day (in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening).
    e.g.:
    – Bye, see you in the morning (= tomorrow morning)
  2. Month (in July, in Agust, in September).
    e.g.:
    – We’re going to Italy in April.
  3. Season (in the fall, in the summer, in the winter, in the spring, in the autumn).
    e.g:
    – We have breakfast on the balcony in (the) summer.
    – I think you tend to eat more in the winter.
  4. Year (in 1985, in1420, in 2020)
    e.g.:
    – They got married in 1994.
  5. Decade (in the 1990s, in the 1970s)
    e.g.:
    – The book was written in the 1980s.
  6. Century (in the seventeenth century).
    e.g.:
    – Life in the 19th century was very different from what it is now.
on
  1. Name of day (on Wednesday, on Monday, on holiday, on Christmas Day)
    e.g.:
    – Many shops don’t open on Sundays.
    – Martin’s on holiday this week.
  2. Dates
    e.g.:
    – The meeting on September 16 has been cancelled.
  3. for Duration (for three days, for a week).
    e.g.:
    – I haven’t played tennis for years.
    – I once stayed at that hotel for a week.

 

since

Point of time (since March 20, since 1993).
e.g.:
– The Parkers have lived here since 1985.
– I haven’t seen you since september.

from… to/until → Beginning time … ending time (from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.)

e.g.:
– The shop opens from 30 to 5.30 everyday.
– I’ll be on holiday from Monday until/till Friday next week.

Other prepositionduring (selama), before (sebelum), after (sesudah), by, till/until (sampai), … etc.

e.g.:
– We were in Rome during/in the summer
– During lunch I explained my plans.
– I’ll be home before 6 o’clock.
– After dinner we went for a walk.
– I’ll have to leave by Sunday
– I’ll stay until Sunday
– He’ll be out till 10 o’clock.

Preposition of Place

At

  1. Address (at 15 Brawijaya street).
    e.g.:
    – I live at 42 East Street.
    – Diane’s house is at 29 Cherrywood Street.
    – His address is at 24 School Road.

    Bandingkan dengan:
    – I live in East Street [UK]/ on East Street [US]
    – Diane’s house is in Cherrywood Street/ on Cherrywood Street.

  2. Public centre (at school, at an Airport, at home, at university, at station, at the seaside).

Note: Aktifitas yag terjadi pada public centre tersebut sesuai dengan fungsinya/ digunakan sebagaimana mestinya.
e.g.:
– I enjoyed my three years at university.
– I bought these dishes at the supermarket.
– Sekar is fifteen. She’s still at school.
– Mehmed is at mosque/ at school/at the sote.
– I had a cup of coffee at Angela’s (house/ flat)

in

  1. Building (in the hotel, in the drugstore
    e.g.:
    – She spent a week in the hospital [US] (in hospital [UK]) last year.
  2. Area (in the park, in the garden)
    e.g.:
    – We went for a walk in the park.
    – ‘Is Ken in the living room?’ ‘No, he’s in the garden.’
  3. City or town (in Kediri, in Pare, in Yogyakarta, in Los Angeles).
    e.g.:
    – He’s got a flat in Milan.
    – Sue and Dave got married in Manchester for years ago.
    – Mezzida speaks quite good French. She studied in Paris for a year.
  4. State (in California, in Virginia)
    e.g.:
    – They study in California.
    – The headquarters of the Unites Nations in New York.
  5. Country (in Japan, in Mexico, in Australia).
    e.g:
    – He works in Japan.
    – After many years away, he arrived back in England a month ago.
  6. Continent (in Africa, in Australia).
    e.g.:
    – What were you ever traveling in Africa?

 

on
  1. Street/road/avenue (on 42nd Street)
    e.g.:
    – Jane’s office is on 42nd Street.
  2. Floor (on the second floor)
    e.g.:
    – I live in a flat on the firts floor/on the second floor.
    – Boyle’s office is on the first floor.
  3. Thing (on the table, on the chair).
    e.g.:
    – Look at all the books on your desk!
    – What’s that on the floor?
    – I’ll put this picture on the wall.
  4. Other preposition:  Behind (di belakang), beside (di samping), by (dekat), into (ke

dalam), up (naik, ke atas), under (di bawah), between (di antara), …ect.
e.g.:
– I hung my coat behind the door.
– Come and sit here beside me!
– A small child stood sullenly by her side.

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